Dengan Nama Allah,yang tidak memberikan mudarat sesuatu di bumi dan juga di langit dan dia maha mendengar lagi maha mengetahui..

Monday, December 21, 2015

Physiotherapy and percussion therapy


Bismillahirahmanirahim
Definitions
·         Postural drainage is a technique in which different positions are assumed to facilitate the drainage of secretions from the bronchial airways.
·         Gravity helps to move the secretions to the trachea to be coughed up easily.
·         The goal of postural drainage and manual therapy is to help drain mucus from each of these lobes into the larger airways of the lungs so it can be coughed up more readily.

Anatomy of the Lungs


The lungs consist of 5 lobes -- 3 on the right and 2 on the left side of the chest cavity, each of which are further divided into segments.  To be most effective, postural drainage should be accompanied by chest physiotherapy, which includes percussion and vibration, deep breathing and coughing.
Once a patient assumes the correct postural drainage position, the caregiver performs chest  percussion and vibration to the desired area.
 Chest physiotherapy is generally performed for 3 to 5 minutes on each segment. During this time, the patient is encouraged to take a slow, deep breath followed by a vigorous cough in an attempt to clear the airways of mucus. This technique should be repeated several times during the chest physiotherapy session.

Percussion
Chest percussion, also referred to as chest physiotherapy, is an airway clearance technique that involves clapping on the chest and/or back to help loosen thick secretions. Doing this makes mucus easier to expel, or cough up. Chest percussion is often coupled with postural drainage and vibration and can be performed using either cupped hands or a mechanical airway clearance device.


Vibration
Vibration is an airway clearance technique that, coupled with chest percussion, is applied during postural drainage to help  clear mucus from the airways. Vibration helps to gently shake mucus and secretions into the large airways, making them easier to cough up. During vibration, place your flat hand firmly against the chest wall, atop the appropriate lung segment to be drained. Stiffen your arm and shoulder, apply light pressure and create a shaking movement, similar to that of a vibrator.
Ask service user  to breathe in deeply during vibration therapy, and exhale slowly and completely. Taking a deep breath and then exhaling slowly and forcefully without straining will hopefully stimulate a productive cough.


Upper lobes/Apical Segments

To drain mucus from the upper lobe apical segments, the patient sits in a comfortable position on a bed or flat surface and leans on a pillow against the headboard of the bed or the caregiver. The therapist percusses and vibrates over the muscular area between the collar bone and very top of the shoulder blades (shaded areas of the diagram) on both sides for 3 to 5 minutes. Encourage the service user to take a deep breath and cough during percussion in order to help clear the airways. Do not percuss over bare skin.


Upper Lobes /Posterior segments

The Patient sits comfortably in a chair or the side of the bed and leans over, arms dangling, against a pillow. The therapist percusses and vibrates with both hands over upper back on both the right and left sides.


Upper lobes/ anterior segments

The patient lies flat on the bed or table with a pillow for comfort under his or her head and legs. The therapist percusses and vibrates the right and left sides of the front of the chest, between the collar bone and nipple

Lingula

The patient lies with the head down toward the foot of the bed on the right side, hips and legs up on pillows. The body should be rotated about a quarter-turn towards the back. A pillow can also be placed behind the service user and their legs slightly bent with another pillow between the knees. The therapist percusses and vibrates just outside the nipple area.

  
Middle Lobe

The Patient lies head-down on his left side, a quarter-turn toward the back with the right arm up and out of the way. The legs and hips should be elevated as high as possible. A pillow may be placed in back of the service user and between slightly bent legs. The therapist percusses and vibrates just outside the right nipple area.

Lower Lobes/ Anterior basal segments

The Patient lies on his right side with his head facing the foot of the bed and a pillow behind his back. The hips and legs should be elevated as high as possible on pillows. The knees should be slightly bent and a pillow should be placed between them for comfort. The therapist percusses and vibrates over the lower ribs on the left side, as shown in the shaded part of the diagram. This should then be repeated on the opposite side, with percussion and vibration over the lower ribs on the right side of the chest.

  
Lower lobes/posterior basal segments

The Patient Lies on his or her stomach, with the hips and legs elevated by pillows. The therapist percusses and vibrates at the lower part of the back, over the left and right sides of the spine, careful to avoid the spine and lower ribs.

Lower lobes/Lateral basal segments

The patient lies on his right side, leaning forward about one-quarter of a turn with hips and legs elevated on pillows. The top leg may be flexed over a pillow for support and comfort. The therapist percusses and vibrates over the uppermost portion of the lower part of the left ribs, as shown in the shaded area. This should then be repeated on the opposite side, with percussion and vibration over the uppermost portion of the right side of the lower ribs.

Lower Lobes/ Superior Basal Segments


For this position, the patient lies on his stomach on a flat bed or table. Two pillows should be placed under the hips. The therapist percusses and vibrates over the bottom part of the shoulder blades, on both the right and left sides of the spine, avoiding direct percussion or vibration over the spine itself.

Wallahuaklam..

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