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Saturday, September 26, 2015

Physiotherapy for Exercise prevention of Osteoporosis

Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis

Bismillahirahmanirahim...
I this entry just want to share with you , what is important of the exercise for prevention of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis bone
Vs
Healthy Bone

RISK  FACTORS  FOR OSTEOPOROSIS
·         AGE    - >menopause (women)
Ø  60 years (men)
·         SEX    -  1 in 3 women; 1 in 12 men
·         ETHNIC GROUP – Caucasian; Asian
·         FAMILY HISTORY
·         EARLY MENOPAUSE – or surgical
·         BODY TYPE – thin body structure
·         OTHER DISORDERS, e.g., Anorexia; RA; Ankylosing Spondylitis

CONTROLLABLE FACTORS
·         Long Term DRUGS - steroids
·         LACK OF EXERCISE – general physical inactivity
·         LACK OF DIETARY CALCIUM & Vit. D
·         ANOREXIA/AMENORRHEA
High Intake of:          
·         ALCOHOL
·         TOBACCO
·         CAFFEINE

WHY EXERCISE IS SO IMPORTANT
·         Osteoporosis is a major health problem as it leads to weak bones & if left untreated can lead to poor posture, reduced ability to carry out normal daily activities, and even lead to fractures (broken bones)
·         Exercise has been proven to help both prevent and treat osteoporosis by improving the density of bone and slowing the loss of bone density often associated with menopause

EXERCISE FOR PREVENTION
·         Exercise can help women with normal bone mass who may be “High Risk”  or others keen to reduce the risk of developing problems
·         People with osteopaenia (early, but not serious changes in bone mass)
·         People already diagnosed with osteoporosis but who are still active

WHAT TYPE OF EXERCISE?
·         Weight bearing aerobic exercise is mainstay of  bone-loading exercise programme where weight is put through the bones to help strengthen them
·         This is supported by specific exercises to strengthen against resistance, which help strengthen bone where the muscles attach
·         In Malaysia – many women complain of knee pain which led us to adapt the class by introducing the physio gym ball - to cushion the knees

AIMS OF AN EXERCISE CLASS
·         Increase Peak Bone Mass as a preventive step
·         Maintain or increase bone density in those diagnosed with minor bone changes, or deemed “At Risk”
·         Reduce the early rapid bone loss following menopause
·         Improve muscle strength, balance and cardio-vascular fitness levels
·         Improve Posture
·         Improve feeling of general well-being
·         Provide education

A WELL-DESIGNED PROGRAMME
·         Integrate different levels of activity and varying intensities of impact
·         Gradually progress the degree of impact and intensity
·         Develop according to members’ increase in fitness and strength
·         Accommodate any other health problems, e.g., knee Osteo Arthritis

STRENGTH TRAINING
·         Should be site specific
·         Should target high risk parts of the body, i.e., those prone to fracture
·         Radius/Ulnar (Wrist)
·         Neck of Humerus (Shoulder)
·         Neck of femur (Hip)
·         Thoracic and lumbar spine (upper and lower back)

ON THE BALL
·         POSTURE – how to sit upright
·         Hips should be bent < 90 degrees, knees and ankles at 90 degrees with feet flat on the floor
·         Weight should pass through your heels and “sit” bones of your bottom
·         Relax with your shoulders down
·         Imagine you’re being pulled up by a string at the top of your head



BALANCE TRAINING
·         Balance Training is important in anyone with poor bone density
·         Exercises lifting one leg or moving  your arms through space whilst on the ball challenge and train your balance reactions
·         This also strengthens your internal core muscles (deep tummy, back and pelvic floor muscle groups)


BOUNCING ON THE BALL
·         Cardiovascular exercise can be carried out safely sitting on the ball to protect your knee joints and cushion your pelvic floor
·         Moving your arms and legs increases the work of the heart & challenge to balance
·         Pelvic floor and inner tummy muscles are strengthened whilst balancing on the ball
·         “Holding” for one count in half-standing position helps strengthen thigh muscles and areas of bone where muscles attach


WEIGHT BEARING THROUGH ARMS
·         Exercises putting weight through the upper limbs helps strengthen the ulnar and radius (wrists) and upper arm (humerus)
·         If done over the ball exercises can also strengthen the internal tummy, back, and pelvic floor simultaneously





RESISTED STRENGTHENING EXERCISES
·         Resistance bands can be used to increase the work during strengthening exercises
·         Upper limb strengthening for biceps, triceps, upper back, shoulders
·         If exercises are done whilst sitting on the ball the challenge to our balance and core control is increased making internal tummy, back and pelvic floor group of muscles work harder



SPINAL EXTENSION
·         Strengthening the upper and lower back is universally important but especially for those with low bone density – to help avoid spinal osteoporotic fractures
·         Many women have stiff and weak upper backs – active extension exercises can help increase flexibility as well as strengthen vulnerable bones (thoracic)
·         Lower backs also need strengthening (lumbar spine)

BACK STRENGTHENING
·         Common physiotherapy exercises  for back strengthening can be adapted with the ball
·         The ball helps support the trunk but increases the challenge to balance
·         Core control is improved whilst active exercises strengthen the back extensor muscles and spinal bones


HIPS – ANOTHER DANGER AREA!
·         Full-blown osteoporosis sufferers  have a high risk of hip fractures from  falls (especially later in life)
·         It is very important to maintain bone density at the hips
·         Specific strengthening exercises with resistance have been shown to build bone density by stimulating the area of bone where the muscles attach

COOL DOWN & STRETCHING
·         Every exercise class ends with a period of gentle slowing down
·         This “Cool Down” allows the heart rate and body to return to normal
·         Stretching helps improve flexibility, maintaining equal muscles lengthen
·         Keeping muscle groups flexible helps balance the work of the front and back muscles of the body
·         Balanced muscles help us maintain good posture and function more effectively




LIFESTYLE CHANGES!!
·         To ensure on-going protection against bone changes you MUST make exercise a part of your normal daily life
·         Changes can be seen in your bone density after 9 months of exercising
·         If around menopause it may just slow your on-going loss of bone density
·         BUT benefits disappear once you stop exercising!!

SO MAKE THE CHANGE!!
Make exercise part of your life and extend the life of your bones!

Wallahuaklam…

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