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Friday, March 4, 2016

Pulmonary Embolism treatment

Bismillahirahmanirahim ,To continue this topic regarding PE  ,here I list out  the treatment and prevention method to avoid this problem is happen and become a problem.


A pair of anticoagulants
- Fast-acting anticoagulant heparin is administered intravenously or under your skin (subcutaneously), which immediately helps prevent existing clots from enlarging and stops the formation of new ones.

anticoagulant warfarin, is a pill that given by mouth. Warfarin also helps stop clot formation, but because it works less quickly than heparin does, both drugs must be overlapped for at least five days, until the warfarin effect alone is enough to prevent clot formation.


Vein filter.

To attempt to block clots from being carried into the pulmonary artery, there may have a filter placed in the main vein (inferior vena cava) in abdomen leading from legs and pelvis to the right side of heart. This is done by inserting the filter on the tip of a catheter through a vein in groin or neck

- Clot-dissolving (thrombolytic) therapy.

Rather than simply preventing clot formation, medications such as urokinase and the tissue plasminogen activator alteplase actually dissolve clots. They work by activating an enzyme that breaks down blood clots and are sometimes popularly referred to as "clotbusters." . Therapy not siutable for pregnant lady, have had a recent stroke, have severe high blood pressure or have undergone surgery within the past 10 days. Thrombolytic medications increase risk of bleeding, especially from recent wounds, at needle puncture sites and in digestive tract, but bleeding can occur anywhere, including your gums when brushing teeth. Some bleeding may be fatal, especially if bleeding occurs in the brain.


Preventive steps in the hospital
- Heparin or warfarin therapy.  Anticoagulants such as heparin and warfarin are given to people at risk of clots both before and after an operation as well as to people admitted to the hospital with a heart attack, stroke or complications of cancer.

- Graduated compression stockings. Compression stockings steadily squeeze your legs, helping your veins and leg muscles move blood more efficiently. Compression stockings used in combination with heparin are much more effective than is heparin alone.

- Use of pneumatic compression. This treatment uses thigh-high or calf-high cuffs that automatically inflate every few minutes to massage and squeeze the veins in your legs. Pneumatic compression can reduce the risk of blood clots.

-Physical activity. Moving as soon as possible after surgery can help prevent pulmonary embolism and hasten recovery overall.

-Take a walk. Move around the airplane cabin once an hour or so. If you're driving, stop every hour and walk around the car a couple of times or do a few deep knee bends.

-Exercise while you sit. Flex, extend and rotate your ankles or press your feet against the seat in front of you, or try rising up and down on your toes. And don't sit with your legs crossed for long periods of time.

-Wear support stockings. These help promote circulation and fluid movement. What's more, compression stockings no longer look like something that grandmother would wear — they're available in a range of stylish colors and textures.

-Drink plenty of fluids before and during the trip.Water is the best liquid for preventing dehydration, which can contribute to the development of blood clots. Avoid alcohol, which contributes to fluid loss.

What is the most important thing you need to understand is Talk to your doctor. If you're at high risk of blood clots and plan to fly six hours or more, your doctor may recommend taking heparin two to four hours before departure.wallahuaklam.

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