Dengan Nama Allah,yang tidak memberikan mudarat sesuatu di bumi dan juga di langit dan dia maha mendengar lagi maha mengetahui..

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Physiotherapy and Thermoregulation Heat in older people

Thermoregulation Heat in older people

Bismillahirahmanirahim , when become older the human body will start to lose of all their humanity control ,one of the function will be detotriate is temperature control .



INTRODUCTION
        Humans are homoeothermic.
        Only during prolonged heavy exercise ,illness, or extremes condition of heat and cold do body deviate outside the normal range of 36.1 to 37.8 c.
        The transfer of body heat is done by conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation.

CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGE
        Done by hypothalamus.
        Sensory receptors called thermo receptor, detect changes in your body temperature and relay this information to hypothalamus.
        Hypothalamus has a predetermined temperature or set point, that it tries to maintain.




PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS
        Skin receptors and circulatory response.
        Reduced autonomic nervous system function.
        Medications.
        Post surgical considerations.
        Other physiological factors like ingestion of food, alcohol, muscle atrophy.




HYPERTHERMIA
        Internal core temperature exceed the normal range.
        Caused by infection, brain lesions, environmental conditions, or heavy exercises.
        In older adults, the fever response is often diminished or absent.

HOW TO AVOID HYPERTHERMIA
        Wear loose-fitting, light clothing during periods of high heat and humidity.
        Take cool baths or showers during periods of high heat and humidity.
        Drink adequate amount of fluids, even when not thirsty.
        Use air conditioning or fans to cool and circulate the air.
        Avoid excessive exercise during peak temperature of the day, especially when humidity is high.
        Avoid working in direct sunlight on hot days.

HYPOTHERMIA
        Hypothermia is a core body temperature < 35° C. Symptoms progress from shivering to lethargy to confusion, coma, and death.
        Risk factors for hypothermia in the elderly include reduced physical activity, immobility, dementia, under nutrition, many other common disorders, and many commonly used drugs.
        Elderly patients may not recognize that they are cold and may not shiver. Symptoms may be nonspecific, and the diagnosis is easily missed.
        Environmental factors that increase loss of body heat include being exposed to cold ambient temperatures or wind chill, lying on a cold surface, being wet, and wearing thin or porous clothing.
        Many age-related physiologic changes, including a diminished perception of cold, predispose elderly people to hypothermia.
        Decreased responsiveness to endogenous catecholamine reduces the vasoconstrictor and shivering responses to cold.
        A decrease in lean body mass reduces the efficiency of shivering for producing heat.
        Reduced physical activity and caloric intake lower the metabolic rate, decreasing endogenous heat production.
        Other common risk factors in the elderly include certain drugs (e.g., alcohol, antidepressants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, phenothiazines, reserpine) and disorders that decrease heat production, increase heat loss, impair thermoregulation, or reduce physical activity.

HOW TO AVOID HYPOTHERMIA
        Wear several layers of loose-fitting clothing and a hat.
        Stay dry.
        Maintain an adequate, balanced diet.
        Drink ,adequate amount of fluids but limit alcohol.
        Humans are homoeothermic.
        Only during prolonged heavy exercise ,illness, or extremes condition of heat and cold do body deviate outside the normal range of 36.1 to 37.8 c.
        The transfer of body heat is done by conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation.

CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS
        The safe and effective use of exercise, heat, cold, or hydrotherapy require throughout assessment of individual’s condition, medical history, and ability to withstand thermal or cryogenic stress.
        Vitals signs should be monitored along with skin temperature, sensation, color, sweat rate, and rate of perceived exertion. 

          The conclusion is Heat-related changes can become serious if preventative steps are not taken. It is important to realize that older people are at particular risk of hyperthermia. Many people die of heat stroke each year; most are over 50 years of age. With good, sound judgment and knowledge of preventive measures the summer can remain safe and enjoyable for everyone. wallahuaklam.






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